(a) General rule
(1)(A) a corporation acquires directly (or through 1 or more other corporations) control of another corporation, or
(B) the assets of a corporation are acquired by another corporation in a reorganization described in subparagraph (A), (C), or (D) of section 368(a)(1), and
(2) either of such corporations is a gain corporation,
income for any recognition period taxable year (to the extent attributable to recognized built-in gains) shall not be offset by any preacquisition loss (other than a preacquisition loss of the gain corporation).
(b) Exception where corporations under common control
(1) In general
Subsection (a) shall not apply to the preacquisition loss of any corporation if such corporation and the gain corporation were members of the same controlled group at all times during the 5-year period ending on the acquisition date.
(2) Controlled group
For purposes of this subsection, the term “controlled group” means a controlled group of corporations (as defined in section 1563(a)); except that—
(A) “more than 50 percent” shall be substituted for “at least 80 percent” each place it appears,
(B) the ownership requirements of section 1563(a) must be met both with respect to voting power and value, and
(C) the determination shall be made without regard to subsection (a)(4) of section 1563.
(3) Shorter period where corporations not in existence for 5 years
If either of the corporations referred to in paragraph (1) was not in existence throughout the 5-year period referred to in paragraph (1), the period during which such corporation was in existence (or if both, the shorter of such periods) shall be substituted for such 5-year period.
For purposes of this section—
(1) Recognized built-in gain
(A) In general
The term “recognized built-in gain” means any gain recognized during the recognition period on the disposition of any asset except to the extent the gain corporation (or, in any case described in subsection (a)(1)(B), the acquiring corporation) establishes that—
(i) such asset was not held by the gain corporation on the acquisition date, or
(ii) such gain exceeds the excess (if any) of—
(I) the fair market value of such asset on the acquisition date, over
(II) the adjusted basis of such asset on such date.
(B) Treatment of certain income items
Any item of income which is properly taken into account for any recognition period taxable year but which is attributable to periods before the acquisition date shall be treated as a recognized built-in gain for the taxable year in which it is properly taken into account and shall be taken into account in determining the amount of the net unrealized built-in gain.
The amount of the recognized built-in gains for any recognition period taxable year shall not exceed—
(i) the net unrealized built-in gain, reduced by
(ii) the recognized built-in gains for prior years ending in the recognition period which (but for this section) would have been offset by preacquisition losses.
(2) Acquisition date
The term “acquisition date” means—
(A) in any case described in subsection (a)(1)(A), the date on which the acquisition of control occurs, or
(B) in any case described in subsection (a)(1)(B), the date of the transfer in the reorganization.
(3) Preacquisition loss
(A) In general
The term “preacquisition loss” means—
(i) any net operating loss carryforward to the taxable year in which the acquisition date occurs, and
(ii) any net operating loss for the taxable year in which the acquisition date occurs to the extent such loss is allocable to the period in such year on or before the acquisition date.
Except as provided in regulations, the net operating loss shall, for purposes of clause (ii), be allocated ratably to each day in the year.
(B) Treatment of recognized built-in loss
In the case of a corporation with a net unrealized built-in loss, the term “preacquisition loss” includes any recognized built-in loss.
(4) Gain corporation
The term “gain corporation” means any corporation with a net unrealized built-in gain.
The term “control” means ownership of stock in a corporation which meets the requirements of section 1504(a)(2).
(6) Treatment of members of same group
Except as provided in regulations and except for purposes of subsection (b), all corporations which are members of the same affiliated group immediately before the acquisition date shall be treated as 1 corporation. To the extent provided in regulations, section 1504 shall be applied without regard to subsection (b) thereof for purposes of the preceding sentence.
(7) Treatment of predecessors and successors
Any reference in this section to a corporation shall include a reference to any predecessor or successor thereof.
(8) Other definitions
Except as provided in regulations, the terms “net unrealized built-in gain”, “net unrealized built-in loss”, “recognized built-in loss”, “recognition period”, and “recognition period taxable year”, have the same respective meanings as when used in section 382(h), except that the acquisition date shall be taken into account in lieu of the change date.
(d) Limitation also to apply to excess credits or net capital losses
Rules similar to the rules of subsection (a) shall also apply in the case of any excess credit (as defined in section 383(a)(2)) or net capital loss.
(e) Ordering rules for net operating losses, etc.
(1) Carryover rules
If any preacquisition loss may not offset a recognized built-in gain by reason of this section, such gain shall not be taken into account in determining under section 172(b)(2) the amount of such loss which may be carried to other taxable years. A similar rule shall apply in the case of any excess credit or net capital loss limited by reason of subsection (d).
(2) Ordering rule for losses carried from same taxable year
In any case in which—
(A) a preacquisition loss for any taxable year is subject to limitation under subsection (a), and
(B) a net operating loss from such taxable year is not subject to such limitation,
taxable income shall be treated as having been offset 1st by the loss subject to such limitation.
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section, including regulations to ensure that the purposes of this section may not be circumvented through—
(1) the use of any provision of law or regulations (including subchapter K of this chapter), or
(2) contributions of property to a corporation.
(Added Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10226(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–414; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title II, §2004(m)(1)–(4), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3606, 3607; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7812(c)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2412.)
1989—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “built-in gain” for “build-in gain”.
1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–647, §2004(m)(1)(A), amended subsec. (a) generally, making changes in substance and structure.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–647, §2004(m)(3), substituted “corporations under common control” for “50 percent of gain corporation held” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Subsection (a) shall not apply if more than 50 percent of the stock (by vote and value) of the gain corporation was held throughout the 5-year period ending on the acquisition date—
“(1) in any case described in subsection (a)(1), by members of the affiliated group referred to in subsection (a)(1), or
“(2) in any case described in subsection (a)(2), by the acquiring corporation or members of such acquiring corporation’s affiliated group.
For purposes of the preceding sentence, stock described in section 1504(a)(4) shall not be taken into account.”
Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §2004(m)(1)(D), substituted “subsection (a)(1)(B)” for “subsection (a)(2)”.
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §2004(m)(1)(C), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “The term ‘acquisition date’ means the date on which the gain corporation becomes a member of the affiliated group or, in any case described in subsection (a)(2), the date of the distribution or transfer in the liquidation or reorganization.”
Subsec. (c)(4) to (8). Pub. L. 100–647, §2004(m)(1)(B), redesignated par. (4) as (8) and added pars. (4) to (7).
Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 100–647, §2004(m)(2), (4), substituted “a corporation” for “the gain corporation” in subsec. (e)(2), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f), and added subsec. (e).
Effective Date of 1989 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
Effective Date of 1988 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1987, Pub. L. 100–203, title X, to which such amendment relates, see section 2004(u) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.
Section 10226(c) of Pub. L. 100–203 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply in cases where the acquisition date (as defined in section 384(c)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 as added by this section) is after December 15, 1987; except that such amendments shall not apply in the case of any transaction pursuant to—
“(1) a binding written contract in effect on or before December 15, 1987, or
“(2) a letter of intent or agreement of merger signed on or before December 15, 1987.”
Election To Have Amendments by Pub. L. 100–647 Not Apply
Section 2004(m)(5) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “In any case where the acquisition date (as defined in section 384(c)(2) of the 1986 Code as amended by this subsection) is before March 31, 1988, the acquiring corporation may elect to have the amendments made by this subsection not apply. Such an election shall be made in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall prescribe and shall be made not later than the later of the due date (including extensions) for filing the return for the taxable year of the acquiring corporation in which the acquisition date occurs or the date 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1989]. Such an election, once made, shall be irrevocable.”